All colleges have been categorized by Chilean Ministry out of Training into the about three account, namely reduced-achieving colleges, mid-finding schools and you can large-finding schools, centered brand new performance of its youngsters in every SIMCE testing ( thirty two ) .
Anthropometric specifications and you may nutritional status
Standardized procedures were used to measure students’ weight to the nearest 0·1 kg, using a Seca scale (SECA, Hamburg, Germany), and height to the nearest 0·1 cm, using a Holtain stadiometer. All instruments were verified before measuring each participant ( Reference Gibson 33 ) . BMI (kg/m 2 ) and height-for-age were evaluated, and Z-scores were obtained according to the references of the Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics (USA) ( Reference Kuczmarski, Ogden and Guo 34 ) . Nutritional status was defined as follows: underweight, BMI Z-score 1; normal weight, BMI Z-score from ?1 to +1; overweight, BMI Z-score from +1 to +<2; and obesity, BMI Z-score ?+2.
Socio-economic reputation (SES) are mentioned having fun with a scale centered on Graffar’s changed method and that was adjusted so you can Chilean metropolitan and rural communities ( Source Alvarez, Muzzo and you can Ivaple toward five socio-economic communities: 1=high (0·step 3 %); 2=mid–highest (14·seven %); 3=middle (step three8·step three %); 4=mid–reasonable (45·6 %); and you can 5=reduced (step one·step 1 %). not, within our research we matched such five categories to your three: large (1+2), middle (3) and you will lowest (4+5) SES.
Statistical analysis included performing ? 2 tests to compare categorical variables, and ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for comparison of continuous variables. After performing bivariate analyses with each potential confounding variable, including sex, grade, nutritional status, SES and school’s performance, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between the nutritional quality of snacks at school (exposure) and individual academic performance in Mathematics and Language (outcome). In each case, the probability of passing the test was estimated using three models. In the second model, SES was added. Finally, a fully adjusted model contained all mentioned covariates with the addition of a variable denoting the school’s academic performance. Because the variable school’s performance was partly derived from the outcome variables, this adjustment may cause underestimation of the association, so we included models with and without adjustment for school’s performance. A P value of <0·05 denoted statistical significance. Data were processed using the statistical software package Stata SE for Windows version 12·0.
Our very own sample is made right up away from thirteen·step one ( sd dos·3) year-old men (52 %) and females (48 %) adolescents away from lower (44·3 %), middle (39·six %) and higher (16·1 %) SES. It went to fifth (51·9 %) and you will 9th (48·1 %) level in public (34·8 %), partly backed (57·8 %) and private schools (7·cuatro %) throughout the Santiago Urban Part. As for health reputation, forty five % away from participants was basically obese or overweight. Almost half the young (48 %) attended large-finding schools, while 31 % and you will 23 % went to mid- and you can reduced-gaining universities, correspondingly.
On the attempt, 56 % from people stated usage of factors in the treat time which were chock-full of fat, glucose, sodium and effort. Thirty-half a dozen % had been considered getting bad-to-reasonable snack, whereas simply 8 % had been thought to consume healthy facts from inside the treat big date from the college. Table step 1 has the descriptive statistics of your take to. Mediocre viewpoints out-of ratings from inside the Language and Math have been rather ong people who have all the way down health top-notch snacks at school (P=0·01). The display out-of children ingesting below average products at school is actually rather large one of 9th graders (59 %; P=0·040), children attending reasonable-gaining universities (61 %; P=0·036), along with among skinny and you will normal-pounds professionals (69 % and 62 %, respectively; P=0·006).